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A Look at Research to better understand the experiences of neurodiverse individual


Conduct research to better understand the experiences of neurodiverse individuals in the workplace and the impact of neurodiversity on employment outcomes. In thinking about this, my first thought is what is out there already on this topic and what are the gaps?


Let's checkout Google Scholar to get an idea. A search of: "experiences of neurodiverse individuals in the workplace OR impact of neurodiversity on employment outcomes" Returns about 2700 results:




If we zoom in and focus on the first part, specifically requesting "in the workplace" we get around 2100:



Requiring "Neurodiverse" and "in the workplace" gets us down to around 914 results:



Trying to automate and get google scholar results is failing me now, but here is a sample of a similar search term from the Springer library:


Title: 'Biocertification and Neurodiversity: the Role and Implications of Self-Diagnosis in Autistic Communities'

Author:

Date: 2016-01-25

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12152-016-9247-x

Abstract: 'Neurodiversity, the advocacy position that autism and related conditions are natural variants of human neurological outcomes that should be neither cured nor normalized, is based on the assertion that autistic people have unique neurological differences. Membership in this community as an autistic person largely results from clinical identification, or biocertification. However, there are many autistic individuals who diagnose themselves. This practice is contentious among autistic communities. Using data gathered from Wrong Planet, an online autism community forum, this article describes the debate about self-diagnosis amongst autistic self-advocates and argues for the acceptance of the practice in light of the difficulties in verifying autism as a \xe2\x80\x98natural kind.\xe2\x80\x99 This practice can counteract discriminatory practices towards and within the autistic community and also work to verfiy autistic self-knowledge and self-expertise. This discussion also has important implications for other neurocommunities, neuroethical issues such as identity and privacy, and the emerging field of critical autism studies.'


Title: 'Attitudes to Interpersonal Touch in the Workplace in Autistic and non-Autistic Groups'

Author:

Date: 2022-09-09

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-022-05710-z

Abstract: 'Unemployment and underemployment have consistently been shown to be higher in autistic adults relative to non-autistic adults. This may be due, in part, to a lack of workplace accommodations being made for autistic people. One factor that may contribute to employment inequalities in autistic people is differences in attitudes towards interpersonal touch. This study acts as a preliminary investigation into whether employed autistic and non-autistic participants differ in their attitudes towards touch in the workplace, and in their loneliness and wellbeing. The current dataset was drawn from a larger online survey (the Touch Test) designed to explore attitudes and experiences towards touch. We found that employed autistic participants had more negative attitudes to general, social and workplace touch relative to non-autistic participants. Autistic participants also experienced greater loneliness and reduced wellbeing. Attachment-related anxiety was the only significant predictor of wellbeing in employed autistic adults. However, attachment-related anxiety, general attitudes to touch and the role of touch in the workplace predicted wellbeing in employed non-autistic adults. With regards to loneliness, general attitudes to touch and the role of touch in the workplace predicted loneliness in autistic participants. We also replicated the finding that a greater proportion of autistic participants were unemployed relative to non-autistic participants. Collectively, this research highlights the importance of considering touch in research investigating employment, and its impact on loneliness and wellbeing, in autistic participants.'


Title: 'Factors relevant to work participation from the perspective of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review of qualitative studies'

Author:

Date: 2022-05-31

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-022-13436-x

Abstract: 'BackgroundThis review is focused on workers with developmental dyslexia (DD). In this review DD is considered an expression of neurodiversity, a consequence of a natural variant of the brain. Evidence was synthesized to explore which factors workers with DD consider relevant for their participation in work and whether these factors reflect shifts in the concepts of health and sustainable employability. The factors were classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), adapted for occupational health.MethodsA systematic review of qualitative studies was performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The factors were classified using a recently proposed rearrangement of the ICF scheme that places participation in a central position and incorporates preliminary lists of work-related environmental factors and personal factors.ResultsFifty-one factors were found that appeared in 35% or more of the included studies and that were relevant to work participation according to the workers themselves. These factors were dispersed over all ICF categories. In the category Functions and Structures (11 factors), most of the factors had negative connotations. In the category Activities (9 factors), all the factors cause difficulties, except speaking (which is ambiguous). In the category Participation (4 factors), the formal relationships are important for the degree of participation. Overall, more than half of the factors are environmental (18) or personal (9) and they both hinder and facilitate work participation.ConclusionsThe results of this review give an indication for the importance of the biopsychosocial model as a relevant approach for people with a disability in the world of work. This review also adds data for the usefulness of the proposals for the reconsideration of the ICF scheme. The data has not (yet) returned any visible trends revealing that the concept of neurodiversity is common in organizations.\n'


Title: 'Flexibility in Formal Workplace Learning: Technology Applications for Engagement through the Lens of Universal Design for Learning'

Author:

Date: 2019-12-16

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11528-019-00455-6

Abstract: 'How can technology be used to engage learners for workplace training? This is a question that designers and facilitators of organizational training experiences face in an era when adult learners are increasingly connected to technology devices and mediated experiences to learn. Technology in workplace training affords flexibility and can be used to provide multiple means of engaging learners, a centerpiece of the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework. UDL has traditionally been used to guide K-12 instructional design, but it is proposed in this article as a relevant lens to aid in engaging learners of supportive technologies in workplace training. Technology trends that impact engagement and learning in the workplace are explored, and technology-supported examples inspired by the UDL engagement principle are provided.'


Title: 'Workplace Injury and the Failing Academic Body: A Testimony of Pain'

Author:

Date: 2021-05-19

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-021-04838-9

Abstract: 'This article explores how meanings around risk, health/safety, and workers\xe2\x80\x99 bodies are constructed in an academic context. I do so through the study of a single academic in Australia who sustained a back injury at work. Through an analysis of in-depth interviews and documents, I attempt to show the embodied experience of an injured worker\xe2\x80\x99s struggle for care, recovery, and survival in the neoliberal academy. Writing from the nexus of workplace health and safety and critical management literatures, the raw testimony of this injured academic lays bare the violences that are enabled within a wider culture of self-discipline, individualism, and performativity in the university. The story presented in this article exposes how physiological and psychological injuries can be exacerbated through the very health and safety procedures that are designed to prevent and alleviate harm.\xc2\xa0Please note that this article contains references to suicide and suicidal ideation.'


Title: 'A narrative review of immersive virtual reality\xe2\x80\x99s ergonomics and risks at the workplace: cybersickness, visual fatigue, muscular fatigue, acute stress, and mental overload'

Author:

Date: 2022-07-16

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10055-022-00672-0

Abstract: 'This narrative review synthesizes and introduces 386 previous works about virtual reality-induced symptoms and effects by focusing on cybersickness, visual fatigue, muscle fatigue, acute stress, and mental overload. Usually, these VRISE are treated independently in the literature, although virtual reality is increasingly considered an option to replace PCs at the workplace, which encourages us to consider them all at once. We emphasize the context of office-like tasks in VR, gathering 57 articles meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Cybersickness symptoms, influenced by fifty factors, could prevent workers from using VR. It is studied but requires more research to reach a theoretical consensus. VR can lead to more visual fatigue than other screen uses, influenced by fifteen factors, mainly due to vergence-accommodation conflicts. This side effect requires more testing and clarification on how it differs from cybersickness. VR can provoke muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort, influenced by fifteen factors, depending on tasks and interactions. VR could lead to acute stress due to technostress, task difficulty, time pressure, and public speaking. VR also potentially leads to mental overload, mainly due to task load, time pressure, and intrinsically due interaction and interface of the virtual environment. We propose a research agenda to tackle VR ergonomics and risks issues at the workplace.'


Title: 'Concerns About ABA-Based Intervention: An Evaluation and Recommendations'

Author:

Date: 2021-06-16

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-021-05137-y

Abstract: 'For over 50\xc2\xa0years, intervention methods informed by the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been empirically researched and clinically implemented for autistics/individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite the plethora of evidence for the effectiveness of ABA-based interventions, some autism rights and neurodiversity activists have expressed concerns with ABA-based interventions. Concerns have included discontent with historical events and possible harm from the procedures and goals targeted. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine some expressed concerns about ABA-based intervention and suggest productive ways of moving forward to provide the best outcomes for autistics/individuals diagnosed with ASD. The authors represent stakeholders from multiple sectors including board certified behavior analysts, licensed psychologists, parents, and autistics/individuals diagnosed with ASD.'


Title: 'Perspectives on Employer-Initiated Terminations Among Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum'

Author:

Date: 2023-01-10

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-022-05884-6

Abstract: 'Job instability is high among autistic adults, with employer-initiated terminations a common reason for job loss. The current study used qualitative methods to code reasons that autistic adults identified for their employer-initiated termination. From 315 autistic individuals ages 18\xe2\x80\x9335 who completed an online survey, 93 (29.5%) reported having been terminated from a job. These individuals were asked about the reasons for their termination and responses were coded into thematic categories. Common reasons included work performance, social difficulties, attendance, and mental health challenges. Adults were more likely to attribute terminations to internal causes (related to the individual) than to external causes (environment-related). A good fit between workplace, individual preferences, skills, and abilities is likely key to promoting job continuity for autistic adults.'


Title: 'Tensions on the spectrum: an inductive investigation of employee and manager experiences of autism'

Author:

Date: 2020-01-04

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10869-019-09676-1

Abstract: 'The increase in autistic individuals seeking employment has led to a growing need for management researchers to consider autism in the workplace. To date, little organizational research has examined this area and what research does exist relies on theories imported from either general psychology (e.g., stigma theory) or reflects a view of autism as a disability. We use the constant comparative method from grounded theory to explore three research questions and to provide researchers and practitioners with recommendations for how autism influences the workplace. Our data sources include (1) written responses from autistic individuals with an employment history and (2) written responses from individuals who have managed autistic individuals in the workplace. Across our two samples, we found largely complementary viewpoints with some of the main categories revolving around disclosure, communication issues or misunderstandings, and management support. Underlying these categories was a desire for equal treatment and an unfortunate ignorance of what autism is. The responses also led us to provide a framework that is organized around the tensions that autistic individuals feel in the workplace regarding disclosure. We conclude by situating our results in the existing literature and discussing the strategic integration of autistic individuals into the workforce.'


Title: 'A Qualitative Study of Adults\xe2\x80\x99 and Support Persons\xe2\x80\x99 Experiences of Support After Autism Diagnosis'

Author:

Date: 2022-12-09

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-022-05828-0

Abstract: 'Adulthood autism diagnosis has become increasingly common, but little is known about post-diagnosis support experiences and needs. We interviewed 19 autistic adults and 4 support persons on experiences of formal and informal post-diagnosis support. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Participants reported difficulties accessing suitable formal support, especially regarding education and employment. Informal support was helpful but created challenges in the relationships between autistic adults and support persons. For autistic adults, support from autistic peers fostered belonging and self-acceptance. We also identified complex interactions between adults\xe2\x80\x99 post-diagnosis identity development and support experiences as they resolved the dilemma between self-acceptance and a desire to change. Findings have important implications for services working with autistic adults and their families.'


Title: 'Shedding light on autistic traits in struggling learners: A\xc2\xa0blind spot in medical education'

Author:

Date: 2021-02-20

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40037-021-00654-z

Abstract: 'Some highly challenging, seemingly \xe2\x80\x9cunsolvable\xe2\x80\x9d situations that arise in medical education could be the result of autistic traits (AT) in learners. AT exist in physicians and learners, ranging from profiles compatible with DSM-5\xe2\x80\x99s criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to more subtle manifestations of ASD\xe2\x80\x99s \xe2\x80\x9cbroader phenotype.\xe2\x80\x9d Often associated with strengths and talents, AT may nonetheless pose significant challenges for learning, teaching, and practising medicine. Since AT remain widely under-recognized and misunderstood by educators, clinicians, and affected individuals alike, they represent a\xc2\xa0blind spot in medical education. The use of a\xc2\xa0\xe2\x80\x9cneurodiversity lens\xe2\x80\x9d to examine challenging situations may help educators consider different pedagogical approaches to address those potentially stemming from AT.This paper aims to raise awareness and understanding of AT-related difficulties in struggling medical learners. To overcome the blind spot challenge and help develop this \xe2\x80\x9cneurodiversity lens,\xe2\x80\x9d we explore different angles. Beyond any diagnostic consideration, we offer a\xc2\xa0series of contextual examples, paralleled with explanatory concepts from the field of ASD. We also underline the role of context on functional impact and describe the often ill-defined pattern of challenges encountered, as well as the fertile grounds for interpersonal misunderstandings and disrespect. We propose historical, cultural, and clinical reasons likely contributing to the blind spot. Mindful of the potential risks of prejudice associated with identifying AT-related difficulties, we underline the necessity and feasibility of conciliating diversity and dignity with accountability standards for medical competence.'


Title: '\xe2\x80\x98A Smaller Mask\xe2\x80\x99: Freedom and Authenticity in Autistic Space'

Author:

Date: 2022-06-26

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11013-022-09794-1

Abstract: "Autscape is an autistic-led conference, organised annually in varying locations around England. Governed by a strict set of rules and regulations, Autscape is a social and spatial setup explicitly devised to accommodate the tendencies, sensitivities, and preferences of people on the autism spectrum. It is a design, in other words\xe2\x80\x94as organisers and participants alike often profess\xe2\x80\x94for an altogether autistic space. The uniqueness of the event, and consequently its value to anthropological theory, lies in the shared imagination of the setting by those who inhabit it as one in which neurotypical masks, otherwise worn daily in keeping with hegemonic society's expectation of conformity, can finally be removed. I introduce the concept of un-festival as a means of depicting this event, similar to festival in its goals of defiance and inversion, but different from\xe2\x80\x94and in important ways, opposite to\xe2\x80\x94festival in its style and architecture, in the dispositions it encourages and mobilises, and in its potential implications. The un-festival offers a powerful comment on this moment in history, whereby masks are no longer seen as an item that affords freedom, but as one that stifles it. While Autscape participants remain doubtful as to the actual effect of this event on neurotypical society, they do nevertheless express a desire that this project will have some longstanding effects. That once a space has been designed for autistic people that considers their specific needs and tendencies, autism may then finally cease to be interpreted through a neuro-normative prism and freed to be understood in autistic people\xe2\x80\x99s own terms."


Title: 'Detection and Diagnosis of ASD in Females'

Author:

Date: 2020-02-10

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42843-020-00006-1

Abstract: 'Autism in females is often unrecognized and undiagnosed. This article describes the presentation of autistic traits of females and how they differ from those of males with autism. Screening tools for assessing autism in children, adolescents, and adults are identified and described. The process of clinical assessment of females for possible autism are described, including the disclosure of potential diagnoses to the patient.'


Title: 'Beyond Friendship: The Spectrum of Social Participation of Autistic Adults'

Author:

Date: 2022-01-25

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-022-05441-1

Abstract: 'Difficulties with social interactions and communication that characterize autism persist in adulthood. While social participation in adulthood is often marked by social isolation and limited close friendships, this qualitative study describes the range of social participation activities and community contacts, from acquaintances to close relationships, that contributed to connection from the perspective of 40 autistic adults. Qualitative data from interviews around social and community involvement were analyzed and revealed five main contexts where social participation occurred: vocational contexts, neighborhoods, common interest groups, support services and inclusive environments, and online networks and apps. Implications for practice to support a range of social participation include engaging in newer social networking avenues, as well as traditional paths through employment and support services.'


Title: '\xe2\x80\x9cPeas in a pod\xe2\x80\x9d: Oral History Reflections on Autistic Identity in Family and Community by Late-Diagnosed Adults'

Author:

Date: 2022-07-14

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-022-05667-z

Abstract: 'In this paper, we report on a participatory oral history study documenting the lives of late-diagnosed autistic adults in Australia. We interviewed 26 autistic adults about their life history and the impact of late diagnosis. All were diagnosed after the age of 35, growing up in an era when autism was not well known. Using reflexive thematic analysis, we uncovered a rich body of reflections on shared Autistic identity and identified three major themes within that data set: \xe2\x80\x98conceptualising the Autistic family\xe2\x80\x99, \xe2\x80\x98creating Autistic community\xe2\x80\x99, and \xe2\x80\x98contesting Autistic identity\xe2\x80\x99. Overall, the study provides insights into the active creation of shared Autistic identity and the importance of Autistic community to these late-diagnosed autistic adults.'


Title: 'Organisational structures and processes for health and well-being: insights from work integration social enterprise'

Author:

Date: 2022-08-27

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-022-13920-4

Abstract: 'BackgroundPrevious research on employee well-being for those who have experienced social and economic disadvantage and those with previous or existing mental health conditions has focused mainly on programmatic interventions. The purpose of this research was to examine how organisational structures and processes (such as policies and culture) influence well-being of employees from these types of backgrounds.MethodsA case study ethnographic approach which included in-depth qualitative analysis of 93 semi-structured interviews of employees, staff, and managers, together with participant observation of four social enterprises employing young people.ResultsThe data revealed that young people were provided a combination of training, varied work tasks, psychosocial support, and encouragement to cultivate relationships among peers and management staff. This was enabled through the following elements: structure and space; funding, finance and industry orientation; organisational culture; policy and process; and fostering local service networks.. The findings further illustrate how organisational structures at these workplaces promoted an inclusive workplace environment in which participants self-reported a decrease in anxiety and depression, increased self-esteem, increased self-confidence and increased physical activity.ConclusionsReplicating these types of organisational structures, processes, and culture requires consideration of complex systems perspectives on implementation fidelity which has implications for policy, practice and future research.'


Title: 'High-Functioning Autistic Students Speak About Their Experience of Inclusion in Mainstream Secondary Schools'

Author:

Date: 2020-04-11

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12310-020-09364-z

Abstract: 'An increasing number of autistic students attend mainstream secondary schools in both France and Quebec. The importance of considering their views on subjects that affect their daily life is now well established in education research. Still, little is known about how these students cope with specific aspects of inclusion. This article explores the school experience of teenagers, considered as \xe2\x80\x9cthe most expert, most capable of telling what it is like to be them\xe2\x80\x9d (Speraw in Qual Health Res 19(6):732\xe2\x80\x93743, p 736, 2009), regarding their academic and social inclusion. Specifically, we aim to identify inhibitors and enablers to promoting successful educational experiences in a Francophone context; 26 autistic students (aged 12\xe2\x80\x9316), attending mainstream secondary schools in France (n\xe2\x80\x89=\xe2\x80\x8917) and Quebec (n\xe2\x80\x89=\xe2\x80\x899), were interviewed. Managing sensory aspects, perceived immature behaviours from their peers and tiredness are identified as the main hardships of school life. Being included in an intensive academic programme, being driven by a passion and having a friend inside the school are reported as important enablers. For high-functioning autistic students, transition into adult life constitutes one of the major challenges and has to be anticipated as soon as possible. Recommendations for practice are put forward to foster their empowerment and specify support needed to help them gain essential autonomy and practical skills necessary in the workplace and to be able to speak for themselves.'


Title: 'Asperger\xe2\x80\x99s Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses'

Author:

Date: 2016-02-02

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11013-016-9484-9

Abstract: 'Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger\xe2\x80\x99s Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon\xe2\x80\x99s (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of \xe2\x80\x9cthe subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism \xe2\x80\xa6 based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness,\xe2\x80\x9d this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition.'


Title: 'Late diagnosis of autism: exploring experiences of males diagnosed with autism in adulthood'

Author:

Date: 2022-08-03

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-022-03514-z

Abstract: 'Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with qualitative impairments in social interaction, social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviour (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Symptoms of ASD are first evident in infancy and childhood. However, individuals presenting with less overt ASD symptomatology may only be diagnosed in adulthood, when the expectation of independence and productivity results in a growing crisis for the individual. This study applied an exploratory qualitative research design to explore first-hand experiences of ten adult males (25\xc2\xa0years and above) who were diagnosed with autism during their adulthood. Purposive sampling was used to select participants through the Neurodiversity Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. In-depth one-on-one interviews, guided by a semi-structured interview schedule were conducted. The thematic analysis technique and NVivo 12 qualitative analysis software were used to organise the data and identify themes. Three key themes emerged: failure to diagnose ASD in childhood despite signs and symptoms, ramifications of missed/misdiagnosis in childhood and adulthood on psychological well-being and the impact of receiving a diagnosis of ASD in adulthood. Missed/misdiagnosis had serious implications for psychological well-being throughout childhood and into adulthood. Late diagnosis resulted in missed opportunities for early intervention to address impairments associated with ASD. Receiving a diagnosis provided an explanation for long standing difficulties, offered a way forward in terms of developing coping strategies and allowed for self-acceptance. The implications of these findings for the development of better early screening and assessment for ASD are discussed and future research pathways suggested.'


Title: 'Theories of Autism and Autism Treatment from the DSM III Through the Present and Beyond: Impact on Research and Practice'

Author:

Date: 2021-01-25

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-021-04887-z

Abstract: 'The purely descriptive definition of autism introduced by the DSM III in 1980 marked a departure from previous DSM editions, which mixed phenomenological descriptions with psychoanalytic theories of etiology. This provided a blank slate upon which a variety of novel theories emerged to conceptualize autism and its treatment in the following four decades. In this article we examine the contribution of these different theoretical orientations with a focus on their impact on research and practice, areas of overlap and conflict between current theories, and their relevance in the context of the evolving landscape of scientific knowledge and societal views of autism.'


Title: 'Abstracts from the 2020 Annual Meeting of the Society of General Internal Medicine'

Author:

Date: 2020-07-28

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05890-3

Abstract: Abstract not available


Title: 'Socially Constructed Hierarchies of Impairments: The Case of Australian and Irish Workers\xe2\x80\x99 Access to Compensation for Injuries'

Author:

Date: 2017-11-27

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10926-017-9745-7

Abstract: '\nObjectives: Socially constructed hierarchies of impairment complicate the general disadvantage experienced by workers with disabilities. Workers with a range of abilities categorized as a \xe2\x80\x9cdisability\xe2\x80\x9d are likely to experience less favourable treatment at work and have their rights to work discounted by laws and institutions, as compared to workers without disabilities. Value judgments in workplace culture and local law mean that the extent of disadvantage experienced by workers with disabilities additionally will depend upon the type of impairment they have. Rather than focusing upon the extent and severity of the impairment and how society turns an impairment into a recognized disability, this article aims to critically analyse the social hierarchy of physical versus mental impairment. Methods: Using legal doctrinal research methods, this paper analysis how Australian and Irish workers\xe2\x80\x99 compensation and negligence laws regard workers with mental injuries and impairments as less deserving of compensation and protection than like workers who have physical and sensory injuries or impairments. Results: This research finds that workers who acquire and manifest mental injuries and impairments at work are less able to obtain compensation and protection than workers who have developed physical and sensory injuries of equal or lesser severity. Organizational cultures and governmental laws and policies that treat workers less favourably because they have mental injuries and impairments perpetuates unfair and artificial hierarchies of disability attributes. Conclusions: We conclude that these \xe2\x80\x9csanist\xe2\x80\x9d attitudes undermine equal access to compensation for workplace injury as prohibited by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.'


Title: 'Five Ways Providers Can Improve Mental Healthcare for Autistic Adults: A Review of Mental Healthcare Use, Barriers to Care, and Evidence-Based Recommendations'

Author:

Date: 2022-08-15

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11920-022-01362-z

Abstract: 'Purpose of ReviewWe reviewed the literature from 2017 to 2022 on autistic adults\xe2\x80\x99 use of mental healthcare and barriers to care. To encourage immediate improvement in mental healthcare, we provide five strategies mental health providers can use to better care for autistic adults.Recent FindingsMost autistic adults use mental healthcare and use it more often than non-autistic adults. Autistic adults\xe2\x80\x99 experiences with mental healthcare are characterized by (1) lack of providers knowledgeable about autism, (2) use of treatments that may not be accommodating to individual needs, and (3) difficulty navigating the complex healthcare system. These barriers contribute to prevalent unmet needs for mental healthcare.SummaryAutistic adults use mental healthcare frequently but have unmet mental health needs. As necessary systemic changes develop, providers can begin immediately to better care for autistic adults by learning about their needs and taking personalized care approaches to meet those needs.'


Title: 'Guidance for identification and treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder based upon expert consensus'

Author:

Date: 2020-05-25

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12916-020-01585-y

Abstract: 'BackgroundIndividuals with co-occurring hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can have complex presentations that may complicate diagnosis and treatment. There are established guidelines with regard to the identification and treatment of ADHD and ASD as independent conditions. However, ADHD and ASD were not formally recognised diagnostically as co-occurring conditions until the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) was published in 2013. Hence, awareness and understanding of both conditions when they co-occur is less established and there is little guidance in the clinical literature. This has led to uncertainty among healthcare practitioners when working with children, young people and adults who present with co-existing ADHD and ASD. The United Kingdom ADHD Partnership (UKAP) therefore convened a meeting of professional experts that aimed to address this gap and reach expert consensus on the topic that will aid healthcare practitioners and allied professionals when working with this complex and vulnerable population.MethodUK experts from multiple disciplines in the fields of ADHD and ASD convened in London in December 2017. The meeting provided the opportunity to address the complexities of ADHD and ASD as a co-occurring presentation from different perspectives and included presentations, discussion and group work. The authors considered the clinical challenges of working with this complex group of individuals, producing a consensus for a unified approach when working with male and female, children, adolescents and adults with co-occurring ADHD and ASD. This was written up, circulated and endorsed by all authors.ResultsThe authors reached a consensus of practical recommendations for working across the lifespan with males and females with ADHD and ASD. Consensus was reached on topics of (1) identification and assessment using rating scales, clinical diagnostic interviews and objective supporting assessments; outcomes of assessment, including standards of clinical reporting; (2) non-pharmacological interventions and care management, including psychoeducation, carer interventions/carer training, behavioural/environmental and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) approaches; and multi-agency liaison, including educational interventions, career advice, occupational skills and training, and (3) pharmacological treatments.ConclusionsThe guidance and practice recommendations (Tables 1, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10) will support healthcare practitioners and allied professionals to meet the needs of this complex group from a multidisciplinary perspective. Further research is needed to enhance our understanding of the diagnosis, treatment and management of individuals presenting with comorbid ADHD and ASD.'


Title: 'The Efficacy of Disability Employment Service (DES) Providers Working with Autistic Clients'

Author:

Date: 2022-09-28

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-022-05762-1

Abstract: 'The efficacy of the Australian Disability Employment Services (DES) for autistic jobseekers has not been examined and is currently undergoing Government reform. To help inform the new DES strategy, we sought the views of: 24 autistic individuals; seven family members of autistic individuals, and; 46 DES employees. Data were collected using surveys and interviews. Data were analysed using Mann Whitney tests plus deductive thematic analysis based on Nicholas and colleagues\xe2\x80\x99 ecosystems model. Participants highlighted a need to adapt existing policies to enhance flexibility of the DES model. There was participant consensus that DES staff require specific education and training to meet the needs of autistic people. Suggestions to inform the new model of DES for autistic people are made.'


Title: 'Meeting (the) Pandemic: Videoconferencing Fatigue and Evolving Tensions of Sociality in Enterprise Video Meetings During COVID-19'

Author:

Date: 2022-11-12

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10606-022-09451-6

Abstract: 'When COVID-19 led to mandatory working from home, significant blind spots in supporting the sociality of working life\xe2\x80\x94in the moment and over time\xe2\x80\x94were revealed in enterprise video meetings, and these were a key factor in reports about videoconferencing fatigue. Drawing on a large study (N\xe2\x80\x89=\xe2\x80\x89849) of one global technology company\xe2\x80\x99s employees\xe2\x80\x99 experiences of all-remote video meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic, we use a dialectic method to explore the tensions expressed by employees around effectiveness and sociality, as well as their strategies to cope with these tensions. We argue that videoconferencing fatigue arose partly due to work practices and technologies designed with assumptions of steady states and taken-for-granted balances between task and social dimensions of work relationships. Our analysis offers a social lens on videoconferencing fatigue and suggests the need to reconceptualize ideas around designing technologies and practices to enable both effectiveness and sociality in the context of video meetings.'


Title: 'Experiences of Autism Acceptance and Mental Health in Autistic Adults'

Author:

Date: 2017-10-25

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-017-3342-7

Abstract: 'Mental health difficulties are highly prevalent in individuals on the autism spectrum. The current study examined how experiences and perceptions of autism acceptance could impact on the mental health of autistic adults. 111 adults on the autism spectrum completed an online survey examining their experiences of autism acceptance, along with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Regression analyses showed that autism acceptance from external sources and personal acceptance significantly predicted depression. Acceptance from others also significantly predicted stress but acceptance did not predict anxiety. Further analyses suggested that experiences of \xe2\x80\x9ccamouflaging\xe2\x80\x9d could relate to higher rates of depression. The current study highlights the importance of considering how autism acceptance could contribute to mental health in autism.'


Title: 'Celebrating the Return of the In-Person Annual Meeting at TMS2022'

Author:

Date: 2021-11-03

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11837-021-05006-0

Abstract: Abstract not available


Title: 'Hybrid Supported Employment Approach for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in India: Evidence Based Case Studies'

Author:

Date: 2021-10-06

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40737-021-00241-9

Abstract: 'Studies have reported that persons with developmental disabilities have the lowest rate of labor force participation, relative to other disabilities due to various factors. This paper presents two cases studies of persons with ID who were successfully provided a hybrid supported employment approach of \xe2\x80\x98train and place model\xe2\x80\x99 and \xe2\x80\x98place and train model\xe2\x80\x99 by the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services (PRS) team. Conducted a retrospective file review highlighting the process of supported employment approach adapted for persons with ID. The ethical approval was obtained from the Institute Ethical Committee. The hybrid supported employment approach focuses on enhancing client\xe2\x80\x99s vocational potential and skills, prepare for job ready, find a suitable job placement. Further, the approach helped in improving the sense of independence self-esteem and quality of life of the clients. A hybrid supported employment approach could be an effective method in aiding persons with developmental disabilities in India seek, get, and keep jobs; it will also help them deal with unique challenges they face in the workplace as well as loss of or gaps in employment. Involvement of families in the intervention will help minimize negative expressed emotions and distress.'


Title: '\xe2\x80\x9cWe Can See a Bright Future\xe2\x80\x9d: Parents\xe2\x80\x99 Perceptions of the Outcomes of Participating in a Strengths-Based Program for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder'

Author:

Date: 2020-02-19

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-020-04411-9

Abstract: 'Autistic individuals often possess strengths and abilities. Despite these strengths, employment outcomes for this population remain low. Strengths-based programs, focusing on developing skills in a supportive environment, may enable autistic adolescents to more effectively prepare for the workforce. This study explores the principal components and associated outcomes of a strengths-based program designed to support autistic children and adolescents to develop interests and skills in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics. The baseline results of 52 parents of autistic youth participating in a 3-year longitudinal survey study were explored, with results showing that according to parents the program positively impacted participants\xe2\x80\x99 sense of belonging, confidence and self-esteem, health and well-being, social relationships and interactions, and activities and participation.'


Title: 'The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training Groups for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder'

Author:

Date: 2015-12-17

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40489-015-0066-5

Abstract: 'Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by social difficulties that can have a negative impact on an individual\xe2\x80\x99s psychological and social wellbeing. To date, reviews of social skills training groups have mainly focussed on children, rather than adolescents and adults. This review aimed to critically evaluate studies published in the past 20\xc2\xa0years that had used group-based social skills training to improve the social skills of adults and/or adolescents with ASD. Thirteen studies were identified, and group-based social skills training was generally effective at improving social skills, with some studies observing transfer effects to improvements in wider psychological wellbeing. Future research should focus on comparing different social skills training protocols in real-world clinical settings.'


Title: 'Mapping SME productivity research: a systematic review of empirical evidence and future research agenda'

Author:

Date: 2021-01-27

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-021-00450-3

Abstract: 'Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the lifeblood of economies around the world. They play an important role in productivity growth, which is crucial for developed economies as they adjust to major trends such as the industrial revolution, an ageing population and changes in the nature of work. This study maps the SME productivity research landscape by way of a systematic literature review focusing on the direct, indirect and mediating/moderating factors that enable or constrain productivity in SMEs. We review 109 empirical studies and highlight the fragmented nature of the extant research in this field. Our thematic analysis identifies six key themes, namely organisational environment, organisational capabilities, investments, types of innovation, external knowledgebase and commercialisation. By taking stock of existing knowledge, we highlight critical gaps and methodological issues that limit our understanding of SME productivity. We propose a future research agenda to address current shortcomings and advance knowledge on this topic. Implications for policy are also discussed.'


Title: '74th Congress of the Italian Society of Pediatrics'

Author:

Date: 2018-12-20

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13052-018-0581-y

Abstract: Abstract not available


Title: 'Being silenced, loneliness and being heard: understanding pathways to intimate partner violence & abuse in young adults. a mixed-methods study'

Author:

Date: 2022-08-17

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-022-13990-4

Abstract: 'BackgroundInternational research shows the significance and impact of intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) as a public health issue for young adults. There is a lack of qualitative research exploring pathways to IPVA.MethodsThe current mixed-methods study used qualitative interviews and analysis of longitudinal cohort data, to explore experiences of pathways to IPVA. Semi-structured Interviews alongside Life History Calendars were undertaken to explore 17 young women\xe2\x80\x99s (19\xe2\x80\x9325\xc2\xa0years) experiences and perceptions of pathways to IPVA in their relationships. Thematic analysis was undertaken.Based on themes identified in the qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis was conducted in data from 2127 female and 1145 male participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort study. We fitted regression models to assess the association of child maltreatment, parental domestic violence, and peer-to-peer victimisation, by age 12, with loneliness during adolescence (ages 13\xe2\x80\x9314), and the association of loneliness during adolescence with IPVA (age 18\xe2\x80\x9321). Mediation analysis estimated the direct effects of maltreatment on IPVA, and indirect effects through loneliness.FindingsAll women interviewed experienced at least one type of maltreatment, parental domestic violence, or bullying during childhood. Nearly all experienced IPVA and most had been multi-victimised. Findings indicated a circular pathway: early trauma led to isolation and loneliness, negative labelling and being silenced through negative responses to help seeking, leading to increased experiences of loneliness and intensifying vulnerability to further violence and abuse in young adulthood. The pathway was compounded by intersectionality. Potential ways to break this cycle of loneliness included being heard and supported, especially by teachers.Quantitative analysis confirmed an association between child maltreatment and loneliness in adolescence, and an association between loneliness in adolescence and experience of IPVA in young adult relationships.ConclusionIt is likely that negative labelling and loneliness mediate pathways to IPVA, especially among more disadvantaged young women. The impact of early maltreatment on young people\xe2\x80\x99s wellbeing and own relationships is compounded by disadvantage, disability and ethnicity. Participants\xe2\x80\x99 resilience was enabled by support in the community.'


Title: 'Simulation-based education to promote confidence in managing clinical aggression at a paediatric hospital'

Author:

Date: 2020-08-12

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s41077-020-00139-9

Abstract: 'BackgroundAn increasing number of incidents involving aggressive behaviour in acute care hospitals are being witnessed worldwide. Acute care hospital staff are often not trained or confident in managing aggression. Competent management of clinical aggression is important to maintain staff and patient safety. Training programmes for acute care staff are infrequently described in the literature and rarely reported for paediatric staff. Simulation training allows practice of skills without patient risk and may be more effective than traditional teaching formats for aggression management.Aim and designThe aim of this proof of concept study was to develop a simulation-based education session on aggression management for acute care paediatric staff based on best practice principles, to evaluate the acceptability of this training programme and to gain an understanding of the impact of the training on participants\xe2\x80\x99 perceived confidence in managing clinical aggression. Two separate simulation exercises were delivered as a 2-h component of a hospital management of clinical aggression (MOCA) training day. Participants completed a written survey immediately prior to, at completion of the simulation-based group training, and at 3\xe2\x80\x936\xe2\x80\x89months following the simulation training.FindingsNine training days were conducted in 2017 for nursing, medical, allied health, education and security staff with a total of 146 participants (83% were acute care nurses). Two thirds (68%) of participants had experienced clinical aggression as part of their routine work, with 51% overall reporting a lack of confidence managing these patients. Immediately following the simulation training, 80% of all participants reported feeling more confident in managing clinical aggression, 47% reported a 1-point increase in confidence, whilst 33% of participants reported a 2- or 3-point increase. At 3\xe2\x80\x936\xe2\x80\x89months post-training, 66% of respondents (N = 44) reported continued confidence in managing aggression with 100% of participants stating they would recommend simulation training to colleagues.ConclusionsSimulation training is an acceptable method of training and shows promise to improve staff-perceived confidence for managing behavioural emergencies in acute paediatric health care settings. In addition, there were potential enduring positive impacts at 3\xe2\x80\x89months after the study. Whilst resource and time intensive, further research assessing the benefits of utilising simulation training in this setting is warranted in order to minimise staff burn-out and improve outcomes for these very vulnerable patients.'


Title: 'The Conceptual and Disciplinary Segregation of Disability: a Phenomenography of Science Education Graduate Student Learning'

Author:

Date: 2019-02-26

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11165-019-9828-x

Abstract: 'Science teacher education has long sought to educate new science teachers to more fully understand \xe2\x80\x9cScience-for-all\xe2\x80\x9d and prepare them to effectively navigate diverse contexts. To adopt this \xe2\x80\x9cScience-for-all\xe2\x80\x9d mantra, we need to address what the labeling (i.e., categorical labeling and/or mislabeling) of students with disabilities means for science teacher education. This paper provides a critical inquiry to ground the claim that disability operates subversively and unrecognized as a marker of difference similar to labels that produce exclusion in science education (e.g., race, class, and gender). Using a phenomenographic design, this research studied graduate students\xe2\x80\x99 conceptualizations of disability as they progressed through the only required diversity course at a large, urban university in the American northeast. Primary data sources included in-depth, pre-/post-course interviews with supplemental data collected from biweekly course reflections. Phenomenographic data analyses addressed to what extent these graduate students embraced a disability studies perspective relative to disability\xe2\x80\x94i.e., viewing disability beyond merely individual deficit. Findings suggest that the course sustained the relatively static conceptualizations about disability held by the participants related to individual deficiency rather than pushing for more critical views of disability beyond deficiency. Implications are discussed in relation to multicultural science teacher education course goals.'


Title: 'Innovations in science education: infusing social emotional principles into early STEM learning'

Author:

Date: 2017-10-03

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11422-017-9826-0

Abstract: 'We report on the development of an after-school and summer-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum infused with the arts and social emotional learning content (STEAM SEL). Its design was motivated by theory and research that suggest that STEM education is well-suited for teaching empathy and other emotion-related skills. In this paper, we describe the activities associated with the development and design of the program and the curriculum. We provide expert-ratings of the STEAM and social emotional elements of the program and present instructor and participant feedback about the program\xe2\x80\x99s content and its delivery. Our results revealed that infusing the arts and social emotional learning content into science education created a holistic STEM-related curriculum that holds potential for enhancing young children\xe2\x80\x99s interest in and appreciation for science and its applications. The data also suggested that the program was well-developed and, generally well-executed. However, experts rated the STEAM elements of the program more positively than the SEL elements, especially with regard to sequencing of lessons and integration among the lessons and hands-on activities, indicating that program revisions are warranted.'


Title: 'Promoting a Collective Voice from Parents, Educators and Allied Health Professionals on the Educational Needs of Students on the Autism Spectrum'

Author:

Date: 2019-06-08

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04097-8

Abstract: 'Providing support for the educational needs of students on the autism spectrum continues to be challenging. Findings from this survey of parents, teachers and specialist staff highlight the need for collaboration between stakeholders who support the education of these students. The main themes to emerge were for school staff to be equipped with the knowledge and expertise to support each student in their learning, and for support with social/emotional needs. Findings highlighted the need for a transparent process for building school capacity to translate research and knowledge into practice by all stakeholders. This collective voice is important to ensure the needs of these students are identified and that appropriate support is implemented to maximise the educational success of these students.'


Title: 'Resilience and Coping Strategies in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder'

Author:

Date: 2022-01-25

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-022-05436-y

Abstract: 'Individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are prone to stress and anxiety affecting their mental health. Although developing coping and resilience are key to cope with stressors of life, limited research exists. We aimed to explore stakeholders\xe2\x80\x99 experiences related to the coping and resilience of adults with ASD. We interviewed 22 participants, including 13 adults with ASD, five parents, and four service provides of adults with ASD from various Canadian provinces. Using thematic analysis, three themes emerged including: (a) societal expectations and conformity, (b) adjusting daily routines, and (c) learning overtime. This study highlights the importance of coping and informs the development of services to help enhance resilience among adults with ASD.'


Title: 'Do Different Kinds of Minds Need Different Kinds of Services? Qualitative Results from a Mixed-Method Survey of Service Preferences of Autistic Adults and Parents'

Author:

Date: 2022-03-11

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12152-022-09487-x

Abstract: 'Many services can assist autistic people, such as early intervention, vocational services, or support groups. Scholars and activists debate whether such services should be autism-specific or more general/inclusive/mainstream. This debate rests on not only clinical reasoning, but also ethical and social reasoning about values and practicalities of diversity and inclusion. This paper presents qualitative results from a mixed-methods study. An online survey asked autistic adults and parents of autistic people of any age in Canada, the United States, Italy, France, and Germany what types of services they prefer (autism-specific, mixed-disability, or general/inclusive/mainstream). This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of different service types, identified through inductive thematic coding and organized into higher-level themes focusing on clinical, structural, societal, interpersonal, and personal aspects of services. Autism-specific services were praised for addressing autism needs, helping clinically, and providing interpersonal benefits of others understanding autism; general services were praised for inclusion, helping clinically,\xc2\xa0community obligations and awareness, and social skills development. Looking at the interaction of these different aspects in respondent narratives nuances debates about autism-specificity, with a complex interplay between clinical, interpersonal, and societal aspects. Clinical and social perspectives are not necessarily separate and opposed, but intertwined based on different understandings of inclusion. Compared to parents, adults focused more on harm/safety issues, enjoyment, and stereotyping among other themes, attending to personal themes. These findings do not\xc2\xa0identify one best service type, but suggest that determining the right service in a given context may be informed by definitions of and goals about inclusion.'


Title: 'Beyond the tensions within transfer theories: implications for adaptive expertise in the health professions'

Author:

Date: 2022-11-11

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10459-022-10174-y

Abstract: 'Ensuring trainees develop the flexibility with their knowledge to address novel problems, and to efficiently build upon prior knowledge to learn new knowledge is a common goal in health profession education. How trainees come to develop this capacity to transfer and transform knowledge across contexts can be described by adaptive expertise, which focuses on the ability of some experts to innovate upon their existing knowledge to develop novel solutions to novel problems. While adaptive expertise is often presented as an alternative framework to more traditional cognitivist and constructivist expertise models, it is unclear whether the non-routine and routine forms of transfer it describes are distinct from those described by other accounts of transfer. Furthermore, whether what (e.g., knowledge) is transferred and how (e.g., cognitive processes) differs between these views is still debated. In this review, we describe various theories of transfer and present a synthesis clarifying the relationship between transfer and adaptive expertise. Informed by our analysis, we argue that the mechanisms of transfer in adaptive expertise share important commonalities with traditional accounts of transfer, which when understood, can complement efforts by educators and researchers to foster and study adaptive expertise. We present three instructional principles that may better support transfer and adaptive expertise in trainees: i) identifying and incorporating meaningful variability in practice, ii) integrating conceptual knowledge during practice iii) using assessments of trainees\xe2\x80\x99 transfer. Taken together, we offer an integrative perspective to how educational systems and experiences can be designed to develop and encourage adaptive expertise and transfer.'


Title: 'Reimagining Gender Through Equality Law: What Legal Thoughtways Do Religion and Disability Offer?'

Author:

Date: 2022-01-20

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10691-021-09481-3

Abstract: 'British equality law protections for sex and gender reassignment have grown fraught as activists tussle over legal and social categories of gender, gender transitioning, and sex. This article considers the future of gender-related equality protections in relation to \xe2\x80\x98decertification\xe2\x80\x99\xe2\x80\x94an imagined reform that would detach sex and gender from legal personhood. One criticism of decertification is that de-formalising gender membership would undermine equality law protections. This article explores how gender-based equality law could operate in conditions of decertification, drawing on legal thoughtways developed for two other protected characteristics in equality law\xe2\x80\x94religion and belief, and disability\xe2\x80\x94to explore the legal responses and imaginaries that these two grounds make available. Religious equality law focuses on beliefs, communities, and practices, deemed to be stable, multivarious, and subject to deep personal commitment. Disability equality law focuses on embodied disadvantage, approached as social, relational, and fluctuating. While these two equality frameworks have considerable limitations, they offer legal thoughtways for gender oriented to both its hierarchies and its expression, including as disavowal.'


Title: 'Highlighting Best Practices in Promoting Diversity, Inclusion, and Civility in STEM: Part II'

Author:

Date: 2021-08-03

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11837-021-04826-4

Abstract: Abstract not available


Title: 'The insider view: tackling disabling practices in higher education institutions'

Author:

Date: 2019-12-10

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10734-019-00479-0

Abstract: 'This paper reports on research about the experiences of disabled staff members in UK universities, drawing on eleven semi-structured interviews with disabled staff in one university, alongside a group auto ethnography conducted by the first four authors, all of whom identified as disabled academics. Disability is generally considered to be predominantly an issue for students, both in practice and in the literature. By contrast, taking a social practice approach, we focused on the barriers faced by disabled employees, both overt and hidden. We found that disability was still viewed as a medical problem, and that disabled members of staff faced considerable extra labour in organising their own supports. We were often made to feel that we were unwanted and that we were \xe2\x80\x98misfits\xe2\x80\x99 in the institution. This paper contributes to theory by showing how social practices can become exclusionary, and how interconnections between practices matter. We discuss ways in which ableism, based on the ideal of \xe2\x80\x98individual\xe2\x80\x99 excellence, creates barriers for disabled staff. In the global context of Higher Education, the increasing marketization of universities in higher income countries creates a difficult climate for the values of inclusion.'


Title: '21 Selected Abstracts from the Montreal Neuroethics Conference for Young Researchers'

Author:

Date: 2016-05-04

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12152-016-9262-y

Abstract: 'The organizers and members of the international abstract review committee conducted anonymous review of all abstracts from the conference for merit based on relevance, originality, strength and clarity of methods and analyses, and overall contribution to the field of neuroethics. Here, we proudly introduce the collection of 21 top-ranked abstracts for the poster contest.'


Title: 'Inclusive Practices for Neurodevelopmental Research'

Author:

Date: 2021-04-09

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40474-021-00227-z

Abstract: 'Purpose of ReviewInclusive research practice is both a moral obligation and a practical imperative. Here we review its relevance to the study of neurodevelopmental diversity in particular, briefly describing a range of inclusive research models and justifying their use. The review itself is inclusively co-authored with three autistic collaborators and community leaders who all have extensive experience of research involvement.Recent FindingsDrawing on theoretical arguments and specific exemplar projects, we describe six key considerations in the delivery of inclusive research. These are the following: taking the first steps towards inclusive practice; setting expectations; community-specific inclusion measures; inclusion and intersectionality; the role of empowerment; and knowledge exchange for inclusion. Together, these sections provide an illustrated guide to the principles and process of inclusive research.SummaryInclusive research practice is both beneficial to and a requirement of excellence in neurodevelopmental research. We call for greater engagement in this participatory research agenda from grant-awarding bodies to facilitate not just inclusive but also emancipatory research.'


Title: 'Eye tracking analysis of computer program comprehension in programmers with dyslexia'

Author:

Date: 2018-09-10

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10664-018-9649-y

Abstract: 'This paper investigates the impact of dyslexia on the reading and comprehension of computer program code. Drawing upon work from the fields of program comprehension, eye tracking, dyslexia, models of reading and dyslexia gaze behaviour, a set of hypotheses is developed with which to investigate potential differences in the gaze behaviour of programmers with dyslexia compared to typical programmers. The hypotheses posit that, in general terms, programmers with dyslexia will show gaze behaviour of longer duration and a greater number of fixations on program features than typical programmers. An experiment is described in which 28 programmers (14 with dyslexia, 14 without dyslexia) were asked to read and explain three simple computer programs. Eye tracking technology is used to capture the gaze behaviour of the programmers. Data analysis suggests that the code reading behaviour of programmers with dyslexia is not what would be expected based on the dyslexia literature relating to natural text. In conjunction with further exploratory analysis, observations are made in relation to spatial differences in how programmers with dyslexia read and scan code. The results show that the gaze behaviour of programmers with dyslexia requires further study to understand effects such as code layout, identifier naming and line length. A possible impact on dyslexia gaze behaviour is from the visual crowding of features in program code which might cause certain program features to receive less attention during a program comprehension task.'


Title: 'Living \xe2\x80\x9cin the zone\xe2\x80\x9d: hyperfocus in adult ADHD'

Author:

Date: 2018-09-28

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12402-018-0272-y

Abstract: 'Adults with ADHD often report episodes of long-lasting, highly focused attention, a surprising report given their tendency to be distracted by irrelevant information. This has been colloquially termed \xe2\x80\x9chyperfocus\xe2\x80\x9d (HF). Here, we introduce a novel assessment tool, the \xe2\x80\x9cAdult Hyperfocus Questionnaire\xe2\x80\x9d and test the preregistered a priori hypothesis that HF is more prevalent in individuals with high levels of ADHD symptomology. We assess (1) a pilot sample (n\xe2\x80\x89=\xe2\x80\x89251) and (2) a replication sample (n\xe2\x80\x89=\xe2\x80\x89372) of adults with or without ADHD. Participants completed highly validated scales, including the Conners\xe2\x80\x99 Adult ADHD Rating Scale, to index ADHD symptomology. Those with higher ADHD symptomology reported higher total and dispositional HF and more frequent HF across each of the three settings (school, hobbies, and screen time) as well as on a fourth subscale describing real-world HF scenarios. These findings are both clinically and scientifically significant, as this is the first study to comprehensively assess HF in adults with high ADHD symptomology and to present a means for assessing HF. Moreover, the sizable prevalence of HF in adults with high levels of ADHD symptomology leads to a need to study it as a potentially separable feature of the ADHD syndrome.'


Title: 'Public epistemic trustworthiness and the integration of patients in psychiatric classification'

Author:

Date: 2018-09-05

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11229-018-01913-z

Abstract: 'Psychiatric classification, as exemplified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), is dealing with a lack of trust and credibility\xe2\x80\x94in the scientific, but also in the public realm. Regarding the latter in particular, one possible remedial measure for this crisis in trust lies in an increased integration of patients into the DSM revision process. The DSM, as a manual for clinical practice, is forced to make decisions that exceed available data and involve value-judgments. Regarding such decisions, public epistemic trustworthiness requires (1) that these value-judgments should be representative of those of the affected public, and (2) that the public has a reason to believe such a representation to be realized. Due to the long tradition of (public) distrust in psychiatry, such a reason can in this case best be provided by an actual integration of patients into the decision-making process, rather than by their representation through scientific experts.'


Title: 'SISMES VII NATIONAL CONGRESS'

Author:

Date: 2015-09-05

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11332-015-0234-0

Abstract: Abstract not available


Title: 'Autistic Input in Social Skills Interventions for Young Adults: a Systematic Review of the Literature'

Author:

Date: 2021-07-13

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40489-021-00280-9

Abstract: 'There has been a recent increase in research on social skills interventions for young adults on the autism spectrum. However, little is known about how autistic adults inform the design and measurement of these interventions. In this systematic literature review, 26 studies published over the past 20\xe2\x80\x89+\xe2\x80\x89years were examined following a comprehensive search. The relative effectiveness of these interventions was mixed. Less than half of the studies described an intentional process for collecting feedback from participants, and only four sought input when designing the intervention. Implications for the lack of autistic input are discussed, as well as the potential consequences of heavily relying on parent/caregiver reports for an adult population. Recommendations are made for future research and practice related to enhancing the social validity of social skills interventions for autistic adults by including them in developing and evaluating interventions.'


Title: 'The Role of Acceptance in the Transition to Adulthood: A Multi-Informant Comparison of Practitioners, Families, and Youth with Autism'

Author:

Date: 2021-05-03

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-021-05037-1

Abstract: 'This study investigated the role of acceptance during the transition process among autistic young adults, parents, and practitioners. Six focus groups were run and thematic analysis was used to identify four themes: Youth on the autism spectrum discussed transition as a time where Self-Advocacy and Self-Acceptance were salient. Both youth and parents discussed the Lack of Understanding and Acceptance they experience. Particularly, youth highlighted the lack of understanding of sensory needs and parents underscored the lack of understanding by medical professionals. In contrast, practitioners highlighted the presence of Community Openness. Both practitioners and parents discussed Finding Personal Support through Acceptance. Self-acceptance and acceptance of autism are imperative for autistic young adults and families to achieve well-being.'


Title: '\xe2\x80\x9cThey Just Keep Coming\xe2\x80\x9d: A Study of How Anti-Black Racial Violence Informs Racial Grief and Resistance Among Black Mothers'

Author:

Date: 2022-09-09

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10826-022-02421-y

Abstract: 'Scholars have begun to address how exposure to vicarious racial violence influences stress and coping processes among Black families in the U.S. Yet, fewer scholars have considered the importance of racial grief as a component of the coping process. The current study drew upon semi-structured interview data from 31 Black mothers in the U.S. (25\xe2\x80\x9352 years; Mage\xe2\x80\x89=\xe2\x80\x8935 years) to explore how mothers processed and responded to vicarious anti-Black racial violence. We used consensual qualitative research methods and identified the following themes: (a) recognizing the endemic nature of racial violence, (b) feeling frozen in fear after a new case of racial violence, and (c) transforming grief into grievance as a route to racial justice. The findings contextualize Black mothers\xe2\x80\x99 concerns about the racial violence that they and their children might experience during their lifetime, and how they channel this grief into actionable change against racial injustice. Authors discuss strengths-based ways to frame the role of grief and loss in the context of racism.'


Title: 'Holistic Flexibility for Deploying Systems Thinking as a Cognitive Skill'

Author:

Date: 2023-01-10

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11213-022-09626-8

Abstract: '\nConsidering Systems Thinking (ST) as a cognitive skill can create greater acceptability of and openness to the discipline from practitioners and researchers outside operations research and management science. Rather than associating ST with frameworks and methodologies, ST as a cognitive skill can help popularize and democratize the discipline. This paper highlights how the conceptual lens of Holistic Flexibility can help practitioners deploy ST as a cognitive skill without the application of any traditional systems methodology. Holistic Flexibility is defined as the dynamic interplay between a state of mind that has the ability to absorb systemic complexity and a state of practice that has the ability to embrace flexibility, both in intent and in form. Through two case-studies, discussions in this paper highlight how Holistic Flexibility can serve as a conceptual lens for systems practitioners. The case-studies demonstrate the importance of a practitioner\xe2\x80\x99s ability to seamlessly manage and work with multiple variables, stakeholders, and factors to deliver responsible outcomes with the aid of learning loops. The main contribution of this paper lies in the case-studies and analyses presented that provide use cases for Holistic Flexibility in ST, which will help address recent calls in the discipline for ST to be considered as a cognitive skill.'


Title: 'A Bibliometric Review of Self-Compassion Research: Science Mapping the Literature, 1999 to 2020'

Author:

Date: 2021-06-05

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01662-0

Abstract: 'ObjectivesScience mapping is a methodology that combines quantitative analysis, classification, and visualisation to identify the composition and inter-relationships between bibliographic objects. Although science mapping has proven useful in diverse fields, we are not aware of its application to self-compassion research, which we sought to rectify here. Specifically, we used bibliometric science mapping to identify the overarching structure of self-compassion research between 1999 and 2020.MethodsWe collected all articles using the search terms \xe2\x80\x9cself-compassion\xe2\x80\x9d and \xe2\x80\x9cself compassion\xe2\x80\x9d in the Web of Science database (N\xe2\x80\x89=\xe2\x80\x892185 articles). Keywords co-occurrence analysis, co-citation analysis, and network centrality analysis were used to describe the knowledge base and volume of self-compassion research.ResultsOur analyses identified four general themes in the self-compassion literature: \xe2\x80\x9cmental health and well-being\xe2\x80\x9d, \xe2\x80\x9cclinical outcomes\xe2\x80\x9d, \xe2\x80\x9cself-perceptions\xe2\x80\x9d, and \xe2\x80\x9cphysical health and family issues\xe2\x80\x9d. The first three themes are relatively well-consolidated and represent core areas of research on self-compassion, whereas the fourth theme is relatively less well-connected and more emergent within the broader corpus.ConclusionsOur results, and the provision of interactive maps and extensive tables, should allow readers to examine connections between research clusters and areas, generate novel research ideas, and more fully understand the knowledge base of self-compassion research.'


Title: 'Recommendations for Responsible Development and Application of Neurotechnologies'

Author:

Date: 2021-04-29

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12152-021-09468-6

Abstract: 'Advancements in novel neurotechnologies, such as brain computer interfaces (BCI) and neuromodulatory devices such as deep brain stimulators (DBS), will have profound implications for society and human rights. While these technologies are improving the diagnosis and treatment of mental and neurological diseases, they can also alter individual agency and estrange those using neurotechnologies from their sense of self, challenging basic notions of what it means to be human. As an international coalition of interdisciplinary scholars and practitioners, we examine these challenges and make recommendations to mitigate negative consequences that could arise from the unregulated development or application of novel neurotechnologies. We explore potential ethical challenges in four key areas: identity and agency, privacy, bias, and enhancement. To address them, we propose (1) democratic and inclusive summits to establish globally-coordinated ethical and societal guidelines for neurotechnology development and application, (2) new measures, including \xe2\x80\x9cNeurorights,\xe2\x80\x9d for data privacy, security, and consent to empower neurotechnology users\xe2\x80\x99 control over their data, (3) new methods of identifying and preventing bias, and (4) the adoption of public guidelines for safe and equitable distribution of neurotechnological devices.'


Title: '\xe2\x80\x98Conflict versus Congruence\xe2\x80\x99: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Experience of Gender Dysphoria for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder'

Author:

Date: 2020-03-13

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04296-3

Abstract: 'An emergent evidence base indicates a higher prevalence of autism exists amongst people attending gender identity clinics. This qualitative study explored adults\xe2\x80\x99 with autism experiences of coming to understand and address their gender dysphoria (GD). Data were collected and analysed using Grounded Theory. Ten adults with autism and GD undertook semi-structured interviews. A tentative theoretical framework of common processes involved in understanding and addressing GD for individuals with autism was developed. The experience is captured in the core category\xe2\x80\x94Conflict versus Congruence. A key finding was the impact of autism as a barrier but sometimes a protective factor in participants\xe2\x80\x99 understanding and addressing GD. Participants appeared to achieve greater personal congruence and wellbeing upon transition. Nevertheless, conflicts remained as they navigated the social world with a continuing fear of hostility and sense of difference due to having two stigmatised identities.'


Title: 'Coping Strategies of Adults with High-Functioning Autism: A Qualitative Analysis'

Author:

Date: 2017-11-29

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10804-017-9278-5

Abstract: 'The objective of this research is to study, via a qualitative and exploratory approach, the coping strategies used by adults with autism and with no intellectual impairment. Semi-directive interviews were carried out with 31 adults diagnosed with Asperger\xe2\x80\x99s syndrome or high-functioning autism (HFA). The data were analysed using an open coding system. Eight coping strategies were identified: special interests, militancy, diagnosis, seeking support from atypical friends, seeking support from animals, normalisation, intellectualisation, and humour. The practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed in relation to the existing literature on this subject. A new approach is proposed in which special interests are seen as a resource and not as a symptom.'


Title: 'A Conflict of Interests: A Motivational Perspective on Special Interests and Employment Success of Adults with ASD'

Author:

Date: 2019-06-08

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-019-04098-7

Abstract: 'A course of action often suggested in an attempt to improve employment outcomes of adults with autism spectrum disorder, is to match between special interests and job opportunities. In this commentary, we propose that the match may be more complicated than it seems, possibly overseeing more pressing employment needs that should be answered such as: the job\xe2\x80\x99s characteristics, labor market demands, and stress resulting from job expectations. Self determination theory of motivation is suggested as a lens through which the association between special interests and a paying job can be examined, highlighting important considerations that hold the potential to increase employment success. Recommendations for new research directions and vocational rehabilitation practice are discussed.'


Title: 'Autistic Disorder: A 20 Year Chronicle'

Author:

Date: 2020-06-26</